Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSM)

What is a Short-Term Scientific Mission (STSM)?

  • The aim is to promote exchange (mobility) within an Action’s scientific objectives.
  • A STSM allows a scientist (specially early career investigators – ECIs) to visit a lab in another country of the COST Action to learn new techniques, gain access to specific data, instruments or make measurements using instruments and/or methods not available in their own institutions/organizations.
  • Period: min. 5 working days and max. 3 months. For ECIs up to 6 months
  • max. contribution for a mission of 3 months is 2500 Euros or up to 6 months and 3500 Euros for ECIs

 

Who can apply?

  • PhD-students, Early Career Researchers (researcher whose career spun less than 8 years between the date of the PhD/doctorate (or similar experience) and the date of involvement in the COST Action)
  • Researchers with their lab in one of the current member states of this COST Action
  • Researchers with a proposal related to the topic of this COST Action

How do I apply?

  • Calls with all the relevant information will be issued on a regular basis and will be published on the Action´s website
  • Submit application form and required documentation including before the closing date of the call

For further information on STSMs contact the EUAlgae STSM Coordinator Dr Dominik Refardt.

 

 

 

Approved applications for STSMs

You can see the approved applications for STSMs here. Click on each title to display the STSM.

GP3: Photostimulation by UVA, Blue and Green radiation and nitrogen effects on the accumulation of Phycocyanin, Mycosporine-like aminoacids and fatty acids in cyanobacteria

Grantee: Fernando Pagels, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR), Portugal

Host: Félix L. Figueroa, University of Malaga, Spain

Duration: 01 February 2018 – 30 April 2018

Experience:

The objective of this work was to evaluate the photostimulation by light quality in the accumulation of bioactive compounds and its relation on nitrogen availability, photosynthetic capacity and energy. It was used a cyanobacterium as target organism. This work was divided in two parts, in the first, two light sources were tested: fluorescent lamp and sodium-vapor lamp in different intensities. For the best condition, a second experiment was designed to test the influence of supplementation of different light qualities (Red, Blue, Green and UV). This STSM allowed me to learn new techniques and methodologies that will contribute for my future works, such as the PAM analysis and protocols for the determination of the biochemical composition of the organism. It also gave me contacts for future collaborations and great colleagues that I was pleased to work with and that I hope to keep in contact.

GP3: WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH MICROALGAE AND VALORIZATION OF OBTAINED BIOMASS BY USING GREEN TECHNOLOGY

Grantee: Jelena Vladic, Department of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Serbia

Host: Luisa Gouveia, LNEG – National Laboratory of Energy and Geology, Lisbon, Portugal

Duration: 15 February 2018 – 12 April 2018

Experience:

The aim of this STSM was to evaluate the potential of Scenedesmus obliquus microalga for treating wastewater from brewery and poultry industries. Moreover, the goal was to determine the composition of the obtained biomass in terms of content of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and chlorophylls. Also, subcritical water extraction as a green technology was applied in order to purify and obtain extracts with highly valuable compounds.

A valuable part of this STSM was acquiring knowledge and skills in wastewater treatment and microalgae biomass production, as well as characterization of the obtained biomass. In addition, a very important and positive outcome of this mission was establishing close and prolific collaboration with Dr Gouveia and her team who kindly welcomed me to LNEG and were more than happy to share their knowledge and experiences.

GP3: Acclimation process of high lipid-producing microalgae subjected to nutrient modulation

Grantee: Mariana Carneiro, Faculty of Engineering of University of Porto (FEUP), Portugal

Host: Giuseppe Torzillo, Institute of Ecosystem Study (ISE) – CNR, Italy

Duration: 18 January 2018 – 17 April 2018

Experience:

We used chlorophyll fluorescence quenching and kinetics to get a closer look upon changes occurring on the photosynthetic apparatus between N-replete (batch) and N-depleted (batch and semi-continuous) culture conditions. For this purpose, a Nannochloropsis oceanica strain was grown and subjected to nitrogen depletion, under high light, in a 1 L-Pyrex Roux-type photobioreactor. We monitored slow and fast chlorophyll fluorescence using a pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorometer on and offline, as well as a (Photosynthetic Efficiency Analyser) PEA fluorometer. Growth rate, chlorophyll, as well as oxygen evolution, respiration, lipid and pigment production were also duly examined.   

GP3: Dinoflagellates for sustained supply of active compounds in optimized photobioreactors (II)

Grantee: Joana Assunção, University of Porto, Portugal

Host: Doctor Francisco García-Camacho, University of Almería, Spain

Duration: 16th October 2017 – 5th September 2017

Experience:

A set-up of a pilot-scale bubble column was planned to culture dinoflagellates illuminated with LED’s (but effective biomass was not produced, the set-up was carried out with seawater). I was trained to manage the LED control unit to allow selection of the various illumination regimens and sterilizing the photobioreactor by filling the vessel and associated pipework with filtered seawater and sodium hypochlorite. In addition, a different computer-controlled compact unit at pilot scale was used to obtain enriched-extract of amphidinols (from a dinoflagellate culture of Amphidinium cartarae). The preparation of toxin-enriched extracts (amphidinols), encompassed the steps of centrifugation, removal of pellet, filtration and supernatant fractionation in a C18 column by flash chromatography (prepared in a vaccum manifold). A step elution gradient was performed with HPLC water, 0%, 50% and 80% aqueous MeOH and 100% MeOH. Each methanolic fraction was separately collected and then tested for haemolytic activity.

GP3: Soil microalgae

Grantee: Timea Hajnal Jafari, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia

Host: Roberta Congestri, Laboratory of Biology of Algae, Department of Biology, University of Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

Duration: 01 March 2018 – 23 March 2018

Experience:

I have participated in different activities during my short scientific mission. I focused my work on microscopic examination and description of isolated soil microalgae. Light microscopy and Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy were used for that purpose. The selected isolates were put in cultivation in culturing flasks using liquid Bg-11 medium for algal growth. Chlorophyll extraction was performed using 100% methanol. Spectrophotometric readings of absorbance was carried out at the wavelength of 665nm. The protocols for total carbohydrates determination in algal biomass and sequenced extraction of exopolysaccharides were also performed. This STSM allowed me to gain new knowledge, both theoretical and practical in the area of microalgae identification, cultivation, biochemical and phylogenetic characterization. I was able to interact with researchers and exchange ideas which is also important for future research and collaborations.

GP3: IMPACT OF MICROALGAE ADDITION ON TECHNOLOGICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR OF GLUTEN-FREE AND TRADITIONAL BREAD

Grantee: Dr. Sanja Vlaisavljević, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Enviromental Protection, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad, Serbia

Host: Dr. Anabela Raymundo, Instituto Superior de Agronomia at University of Lisboa, Portugal

Duration: 06 October 2017 – 28 October 2017

Experience:

I have spent my short-term scientific mission at Instituto Superior de Agronomia at University of Lisboa under the supervision of Dr. Anabela Raymundo. The aim of the STSM was evaluation of the impact of microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) addition on technological and rheological behavior of bread and optimization method for the disruption of microalgae cell wall.

This research program provided me important results and new aspect to my ongoing research and completion of my investigations concerned about development of new food products, using functional ingredients from microalgae food ingredients using various techniques and methods. It was a professional challenge as well as important professional experience.

In contact with colleagues from Dr. Raymundo Lab I’ve acquired new ideas about mutual projects and new collaboration on mutual benefits, which could result in further transfer of experiences, and in building a stable platform for further cooperation in order to goal some future international project. Therefore, we are preparing a paper which is supported by this COST Action as result of our mutual work. I would like to take the opportunity to thank the Grant Holder of the COST Action EUAlgae and STSM Coordinators financial support and great collaboration

GP3: MICROALGAE CULTIVATION USING AQUACULTURE EFFLUENTS- COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT NUTRIENT SOURCES AND CULTIVATION MODES

Grantee: Yaiza Tejido Núñez, Water and Health Division, Ceit-IK4, Spain  

Host: Dr. Dominik Refardt, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Natural Resource Sciences, Switzerland

Duration: 15 January 2018 – 15 March 2018

Experience:

The purpose of this Short Term Scientific Mission was to determine the suitability of microalgae for the treatment of wastewater from recirculating aquaculture systems. To accomplish this objective, lab scale experiments were carried out treating wastewater from a recirculating aquaculture system located at the Institute of Natural Resource Sciences of the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW). Chlorella vulgaris and Acutodesmus obliquus were tested, and the results indicate that a microalgae-based technology to treat this wastewater could be developed. This experience has been very rewarding, not only in a professional way, but also in a personal aspect, so I would like to thank all people from ZHAW that made it possible and special!

GP3: MICRO-ALGAL PROTEIN EXTRACTION, PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTRACTS

Grantee: Lorenzo Hernando Ana, Universidad de Valladolid, Spain

Host: Hayes Maria, Teagasc Food Research Center, Ireland

Duration: 04 October 2017 – 22 December 2017

Experience:

This STSM was planned as an extension to a previous STSM experience, so based on those results, an improved protein extraction procedure from microalgae could be developed. In brief, traditional extraction was associated with enzymatic treatment to enhance cell disruption and hence protein extraction. Four different enzymes were tested using optimal operation conditions and protein extracts were obtained and tested. Proximate analysis and techno-functional properties such as colour, protein solubility, foaming and emulsifying capacity or water and oil holding capacity test were assessed. In addition, I was also able to attend the 46th Annual Food Science and Technology Conference, organized by the IFSTI and held in Dublin, as well as to participate in some activities in the frame of the Science Week, helping children to get a closer to science and research activities. As before, the time I spent in Dublin working in Teagasc was both personally and academically rewarding, and it is an experience I strongly recommend to any PhD student.

GP3: Interactions and performance of a Chlorella vulgaris strain and its symbiotic bacterium Rhizobium sp. during municipal wastewater treatment

Grantee: Lorenza Ferro, Umeå University, Dep. of Chemistry, Sweden

Host: Raul Muñoz, University of Valladolid, Dep. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Spain

Duration: 15 September 2017 – 13 December 2017

Experience:

The purpose of my STSM was the evaluation of the symbiotic relationship between the microalga Chlorella vulgaris and its associated bacterium Rhizobium sp., previously co-isolated from municipal wastewater in Sweden. Three metabolic conditions were tested batchwise, photoautotrophic (control), heterotrophic and mixotrophic, and these two last experiments were performed in synthetic wastewater for the evaluation of the microbial consortium in municipal wastewater treatment. Our results showed that Chlorella-Rhizobium co-cultivation is a promising strategy for simultaneous wastewater treatment and microbial biomass production especially under mixotrophic conditions, as a 3-fold higher biomass concentration, a 13-fold higher fatty acid content and a superior carbon and nutrient removals efficiency (+58% TOC, +41% TN, +44% TP) were achieved compared to the axenic C. culgaris culture. The project will continue at Umeå University, where the axenic cultures and the co-culture will be tested under mixotrophic conditions in a semi-continuous system.

GP3: PRODUCTION OF SECONDARY METABOLITES OF FRESHWATER CYANOBACTERIA APPLICABLE IN BIOTECHNOLOGY

Grantee: Ksenija Savadova, Nature Research Centre, Laboratory of Algology and Microbial Ecology, Vilnius, Lithuania

Host: Prof. Dr Hab. Hanna Mazur-Marzec, University of Gdańsk, Institute of Oceanography, Department of Marine Biotechnology, Gdynia, Poland

Duration: 3 March 2018 – 24 March 2018

Experience:

The purpose of STSM was to screen secondary metabolites in cyanobacteria strains from Lithuanian freshwaters and to assess factors affecting their production in order to select the strains with potential for biotechnological application. During STSM, cyanobacteria strains from genera Planktothrix, Sphaerospermopsis, Aphanizomenon and Chrysosporum were analysed. Oligopeptides structure and quantity were assessed using LC-MS/MS system. I also acquired knowledge and new skills testing bioactivity of cyanobacteria strains extracts by using enzyme (trypsin inhibition) bioassay and cancer cell cultures for evaluation of cytotoxic activity (MTT assay).

GP2: Wastewater treatment and biogas production: a comparison of green algae and diatoms

Grantee: Jelena Godrijan, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb, Croatia

Host: Cristina González, Instituto IMDEA Energía, Madrid, Spain

Duration: 18 January 2017 – 19 April 2017

Experience:

The purpose of my short term scientific mission in Instituto IMDEA Energía was to compare the green algae wastewater growth and biogas production with diatoms. Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliqus were chosen as representatives of green algae, and Nitzschia palea for diatoms. Algae were grown in 20, 50, 70 and 100 % of wastewater content. Nitzschia palea was successfully grown in wastewater, and highest yields of biomass were observed for 100 % wastewater content. For the assessment of biogas production biomethane potential tests (pictured) were performed, and the freshwater diatom Nitzschia palea was able to produce a very high methane yield. During my stay at Instituto IMDEA Energía I learned many methods applicable to my future work and the whole research team of the laboratory and institute were very helpful and very friendly.

GP2: Microalgae in savoury food bioproducts: evaluation of in vitro digestibility and antioxidant activity

Grantee: Ana Paula dos Santos Batista (ECI) – University of Lisbon (Portugal)

Host: Professor Mario Tredici, University of Florence – DISPAA. ITALY.

EUALGAE WG Members involved: Dr. Alberto Niccolai

Duration: 6 March 2017 – 14 April 2017

Experience:

Salted cookies (“crackers”) with incorporation of microalgae biomass were developed at the University of Lisbon (ULisboa, Portugal) using microalgae strains from the Algae Bank of Fotosintetica & Microbiologica s.r.l. (Italy), namely Arthrospira platensis F&M-C256, Tetraselmis suecica F&M-M33 and Phaeodactylum tricornutum F&M-M40. During Ana Paula Batista six week STSM in the University of Florence the crackers were analysed in terms of in vitro digestibility (IVD) through an enzymatic methodology optimized by Alberto Niccolai from Professor Mario Tredici group. Microalgae crackers showed high IVD, with values ranging from 82-86%, within the range of commercial crackers (78-93%). The in vitro antioxidant activity of the microalgae crackers samples was also analysed through DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA) and total phenolic assays, showing significantly higher values than the control (up to +270% RSA for A. platensis and P. tricornutum 6% crackers)

GP2: Optimising micro-algal protein extraction and characterisation of bioactivities and techno-functional attributes

Grantee: Ana Lorenzo, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain

Host: Maria Hayes, Teagasc – Food Research Center, Dublin, Ireland

Duration9 January 2017 – 7 April 2017

Experience:

In my STSM, microalgae were used for potential protein ingredient production. Four different microalgae species, selected based on their industrial relevance (Scenedesmus almeriensis, Nannochloropsis gaditana, Spirulina platensis, Isochrysis T-iso), were used as source materials for protein and value-added ingredient generation. Infrastructure and equipment available at Teagasc were applied to these microalgae strains to optimize protein yield recovery from this biomass. In addition, the functional and health attributes of the protein extracts and concentrates developed in this work were assessed for their potential functional food applications using in vitro bioassays. I really appreciated the possibility of working there for three months and totally recommend the experience. My time there was really satisfying and rewarding, in both personal and academic aspects.

GP2: Life cycle assessment of algal-bacterial photobioreactors for biogas upgrading

GranteeAna Ferreira, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal

Host: Raul Muñoz, Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.

Duration16 April 2017 – 30 April 2017

Experience:

The purpose of my short-term scientific mission (STSM) at the Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology in University of Valladolid was to evaluate the resource´s viability, taking into account a sustainability study concerning energy and environmental indicators of the algal-bacterial photobioreactors for biogas upgrading. The study included the creation of an inventory (inputs and outputs) of all processes involved in wastewater treatment by microalgae and biomethane production; direct measurements of the equipment, the analysis of energy and CO2 emissions for microalgae and respective conversion technology (life cycle methodology), the and analysis of environmental impacts.

This STSM allowed me to learn about the new technologies for biogas upgrading using microalgae, to work in the research group that is a reference in the development of cost-effective technologies for the treatment of industrial and domestic wastewaters, both aerobically and anaerobically and also design and operate pilot and field scale bioreactors for several environmental purposes. This experience enriched my experience and expertise in my research area. It was a pleasure to have the opportunity to contribute and collaborate with this group.

GP2: Suitability of Microalgae to Biodiesel Production

GranteeMs Vânia Pôjo, Faculty of Engineering of University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

Host: Faculty of Biology-CIBUS, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain

Duration6 March 2017 – 20 April 2017

Experience:

With the work developed within COST Action ES1408, it was possible to learn techniques of marine microalgae cultivation, maintenance of the strains and biochemical analyzes. On the picture, you can see seven different strains of Tetraselmis sp., with which the STSM grantee worked at the University of Santiago de Compostela.

GP2: Dinoflagellates for sustained supply of active compounds in optimized photobioreactors

Grantee: Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal

Host: University of Almería, Almeria, Spain

Duration: 5 February 2017 – 19 February 2017

Experience:

The STSM carried out in the University of Almeria encompassed the manipulation and culturing of dinoflagellates Karlodinium veneficum in T-flasks. It was trained the preparation of media and inoculums, including the maintenance of the different conditions of the dinoflagellates culturing. A study was performed on growth kinetics and biomass production during 10 days, where the cell concentration was daily accessed. It was also carried out the spectrophotometric analysis of the nutrient concentration (such as phosphates and nitrates) in the Karlodinium cultures. The detention of biotoxins, produced by dinoflagellates (by Amphidinium carterae from a previous culture processing) was also accessed in terms of hemolytic activity. 

GP2: Optimization of Tetraselmis species growth, productivity and harvest

Grantee: Dr Mariana Carneiro, Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

Host: Faculty of Biology-CIBUS, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de
Compostela, Spain

Duration: 23 January 2017 – 4 March 2017

Experience:

Tetraselmis spp. was grown in a laboratory photobioreactor in cyclostat to study some of the factors that influence the quantitative production of microalgal components, with focus on lipids. A characterization of Tetraselmis spp. strains to evaluate the cell’s growth, chlorophyll and lipid content. After this first characterization of Tetraselmis spp. and when microalgae were near the end of the log phase, we employed two different renewal rates of the culture with fresh medium daily. The results obtained revealed a fast growth of Tetraselmis spp.. Chlorophyll a content revealed strain-specific changes with the both renewal rates. Lipid evaluation also revealed a strain-specific quantitative increase of lipid content/cell when renewal rates were applied.

GP1: Supercritical CO2 extraction of hydrocarbons from B. braunii with an emphasis on cell viability

Grantee: Ece Yildiz Ozturk, Bioengineering Department, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey

Host: Dr. Dorinde Kleinegris, Departament of Bioprocess Engineering, WU Agrotechnology and Food Sciences, Droevendaalsesteeg 4, 6708 PB Wageningen

Duration: 1 March 2016 – 30 March 2016

Experience: I was very delighted to find the opportunity to spend one month working on the high pressure hastelloy vessel system at Food & Biobased Research in Wageningen UR. This gave me a chance to deepen my knowledge related to down-stream processes in the inspiring, creative environment of one of the largest Netherland universities. COST Action ES1408 programme was a great opportunity to enrich my future studies and contribute to my academic development. Within the scope of the STSM, supercritical CO2 extractions of hydrocarbons from lyophilized and fresh biomass of Botryococcus braunii by using a Hastelloy vessel were carried out. The hastelloy vessel is capable of supercritical CO2 extraction of both fresh algal broth and lyophilized biomass. This specification is additional to the equipment that has been used for the SC-CO2 extraction of hydrocarbons out of algae in Turkey. Besides, quantitative detection of hydrocarbons in algae extracts was executed by gas chromatograph. Supercritical CO2 extraction conditions that enable maximum hydrocarbon recovery were determined. In addition, the effect of high pressure on cell viability was investigated by methylene blue analysis and via microscopic images. Also, reusability of algal culture after extraction was investigated in modified CHU 13 liquid media under climate room conditions.

GP1: BIOGAS UPGRADING USING AN ALGAL-BACTERIAL PHOTOBIOREACTOR

Grantee: Ana-Maria GALAN, Department of Bioresources, The National Institute for Research and Development in Chemistry and Petrochemistry – ICECHIM, Bucharest.

Host: Raul MUNOZ, Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.

Duration: 29 February 2016 – 13 March 2016

Experience: The purpose of my STSM at University of Valladolid was the application of a microalgal-bacterial process for  biogas upgrading. For this purpose, I studied here the operation mode of two systems: 1. A system with an open  photobioreactor – a pilot high rate algal pond (HRAP) – with a volume of 180L, connected with an external absorption column with a volume of 2.2 L. This system was used for the removal of CO2 and H2S from biogas, and for the treatment of a diluted wastewater centrate.  2. The second system studied here is a system with a closed photobioreactor with a volume of 110L connected to an external absorption column with a capacity of 2 L. This system was used for the removal of the CO2 and H2S from raw biogas.  For  both systems a synthetic mixture of  29.5 % CO2, 0.5 % H2S and 70% CH4 was used as raw  biogas. To evaluate the performance of both systems, the following parameters were monitored: the composition of the raw biogas and upgraded biogas, the TOC, IC, TN, NH4+, NO2−, NO3 −, P, and TSS in the influent and in the culture broth. The temperature, pH, and DO in the cultivation broth and the flow rate of the influent, of the raw biogas and upgraded biogas were also measured.

This STSM allowed me to learn how to operate and how to monitor a system for biogas upgrading. Here, I learned techniques that could be applied in our laboratories in Bucharest.

 

GP1: Application of milking process in the Botryococcus braunii production

Grantee: Judit Martín, Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain

Host: María Barbosa, Departament of Bioprocess Engineering, WU Agrotechnology and Food Sciences, Droevendaalsesteeg 4, 6708 PB Wageningen

Duration: 12 January 2016 – 10 April 2016

Experience: The purpose of my short-term scientific mission (STSM) in Wageningen University was the application of milking process in theBotryococcus braunii production. It was a great challenge where the extraction of EPS (exo-polysaccharides) from algae was carried out at the same time of the production of microalgae biomass through a microfiltration, as a first step. It was necessary to check the cell viability during this process and, of course, to optimise the operational conditions such as the number of milking cycles. We had to take into account during this optimization: the high product recovery and the microalgae production. That allowed me to learn new techniques, focussed on the extraction, that could be possible apply in other type of microalgae and process. 

GP1: Use of metabolic modeling for terpenoid production enhancement

Grantee: Konstantinos Vavitsas, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorlvadsensvej 40, Frederiksberg C, Denmark

Host: Steinn Gudmundsson, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science; the Center for Systems Biology, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland

Duration: 30th September 2015 – 9th October 2015 (11 days)

Experience: The purpose of my short-term scientific mission (STSM) to Steinn Guðmundsson’s laboratory (University of Iceland) was to train in the use of the constraint-based reconstruction and analysis (COBRA) approach to predict network properties using existing genome-scale metabolic models as well as to extend such models, e.g. to include heterologous pathways. In simpler words, I learned how to use linear programming to computationally study the metabolism of Synechocystis—a cyanobacterium used in biotechnological applications—as a whole. That allowed me to predict metabolic perturbations when inserting a heterologous pathway and find the metabolic bottlenecks that need to be addressed experimentally in order to increase terpenoid production from cyanobacteria in general.